aspergerian 
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Re: “The Evolution of Food

The "safety" of glyphosate and Roundup merit reevaluation. Glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway (1-2), by which various intestinal bacteria produce folate and three aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) (3; reviewed in 4). Folate occurs naturally, and its synthetic form is folic acid (5). A recent review stated that folate "produced by the colonic bacteria exceeds dietary intake and affects the folate status of the host... Even though absorption occurs primarily in the duodenum and upper jejunum, the colon represents a major depot of folate and the vitamin produced by the colonic bacteria exceeds dietary intake and affects the folate status of the host." (6)
Thus, since glyphosate impairs folate production by intestinal bacteria, a pregnant or soon-to-be-pregnant woman who regularly ingested glyphosate may have had suboptimal levels of folate for herself and for her conceptus. Indeed, glyphosate´s adverse effect upon folate production may have been a factor leading to a recent finding, "Periconceptional folic acid may reduce [autism spectrum] risk in those with inefficient folate metabolism" (7). Furthermore, "Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated" (8).
1. The Site of the Inhibition of the Shikimate Pathway by Glyphosate: I. INHIBITION BY GLYPHOSATE OF PHENYLPROPANOID SYNTHESIS IN BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH) .
Holländer H, Amrhein N.
Plant Physiol. 1980 Nov;66(5):823-9.
2. The Site of the Inhibition of the Shikimate Pathway by Glyphosate: II. INTERFERENCE OF GLYPHOSATE WITH CHORISMATE FORMATION IN VIVO AND IN VITRO.
Amrhein N, Deus B, Gehrke P, Steinrücken HC.
Plant Physiol. 1980 Nov;66(5):830-4.
3. The Shikimate Pathway: Early Steps in the Biosynthesis of Aromatic Compounds.
Herrmann KM.
Plant Cell. 1995 Jul;7(7):907-919.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12242393
4. Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases
Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff
Entropy 2013, 15(4), 1416-1463
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/4/1416
5. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/folate/NS_patient-folate
6. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria
Rossi M, Amaretti A, et al
Nutrients. 2011 January; 3(1): 118–134.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257725/
7. Maternal periconceptional folic acid intake and risk of autism spectrum disorders and developmental delay in the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) case-control study.
Schmidt RJ, Tancredi DJ, Ozonoff S, Hansen RL, Hartiala J, Allayee H, Schmidt LC, Tassone F, Hertz-Picciotto I.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):80-9.
[open access]
8. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics
Boris Arkadievich Shenderov
Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2012; 23:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744659/

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Posted by aspergerian on 09/26/2013 at 6:10 AM

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